PsyOps

Association of Old Crows (AOC)
The AOC Today. The AOC is an IRS 501(c)(6) non-profit tax-exempt professional association with an annual budget of approximately $2.4M, 10 staff, and over 14,500 members including 65 chapters from 19 countries (comprised of 29% government and active duty military and 49% defense electronics industry). Chapters located outside of the US include Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Republic of Korea, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, and the United Kingdom.
The AOC is working to adjust to these fact-of-life changes to the national security environment. AOC is now focusing on “Information Operations (IO)”, which includes those actions taken to affect adversary information and information systems, while defending one’s own information and information systems. “Information Operations”, requires the close, continuous integration of offensive and defensive capabilities and activities, as well as effective design, integration, and interaction of command and control with intelligence support. AOC will, in the future, focus on the five primary elements of “Information Operations”, which encompasses Electronic Warfare (EW), Operations Security (OPSEC), Psychological Operations (PSYOPS), Military Deception, and Computer Network Operations (attack, defense, reconnaissance, or exploitation).

Federal law also authorizes the use of military force to suppress domestic violence or insurrection.

PSYOP missions are designed to influence the attitudes and behaviors of foreign enemy, friendly, or neutral audiences. In unconventional warfare, PSYOP elements try to demoralize hostile forces and reduce their will to fight.

Information is no longer a staff function but an operational one. It is deadly as well as useful.
--- Executive Summary, Air Force 2025 report

Information Operations The integrated employment of the core capabilities of electronic warfare, computer network operations, psychological operations, military deception and operations security, in concert with specified supporting and related capabilities, to influence, disrupt, corrupt or usurp adversarial human and automated decision making while protecting our own. Also called IO.

    computer network exploitation. Enabling operations and intelligence collection capabilities conducted through the use of computer networks to gather data from target or adversary automated information systems or networks. Also called CNE.

Psychological Operations. Planned operations to convey selected information and indicators to foreign audiences to influence their emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of foreign governments, organizations, groups, and individuals. The purpose of psychological operations is to induce or reinforce foreign attitudes and behavior favorable to the originator’s objectives. Also called PSYOP.

Military Deception. Actions executed to deliberately mislead adversary military decision makers as to friendly military capabilities, intentions, and operations, thereby causing the adversary to take specific actions (or inactions) that will contribute to the accomplishment of the friendly forces mission. Also called MILDEC.

Operations Security. A process of identifying critical information and subsequently analyzing friendly actions attendant to military operations and other activities to:

    a. identify those actions that can be observed by adversary intelligence systems;
    b. determine indicators that hostile intelligence systems might obtain that could be interpreted or pieced together to derive critical information in time to be useful to adversaries; and
    c. select and execute measures that eliminate or reduce to an acceptable level the vulnerabilities of friendly actions to adversary exploitation.

Also called OPSEC.

Information Operations. Actions taken to affect adversary information and information systems while defending one's own information and information systems. Also called IO.

    [Information operations are the integrated employment of the core capabilities of influence operations, electronic warfare operations, network warfare operations, in concert with specified integrated control enablers, to influence, disrupt, corrupt or usurp adversarial human and automated decision making while protecting our own.] (AFDD 2-5) {Italicized definition in brackets applies only to the Air Force and is offered for clarity.}

Influence Operations. Employment of capabilities to affect behaviors, protect operations, communicate commander’s intent, and project accurate information to achieve desired effects across the cognitive domain. These effects should result in differing behavior or a change in the adversary decision cycle, which aligns with the commander’s objectives.

Influence operations are focused on affecting the perceptions and behaviors of leaders, groups, or entire populations. Influence operations employ capabilities to affect behaviors, protect operations, communicate commander’s intent, and project accurate information to achieve desired effects across the cognitive domain. These effects should result in differing behavior or a change in the adversary’s decision cycle, which aligns with the commander’s objectives. The military capabilities of influence operations are psychological operations (PSYOP), military deception (MILDEC), operations security (OPSEC), counterintelligence (CI) operations, counterpropaganda operations and public affairs (PA) operations.

    Psychological Operations Focused on the cognitive domain of the battlespace, PSYOP targets the mind of the adversary. In general, PSYOP seeks to induce, influence, or reinforce the perceptions, attitudes, reasoning, and behavior of foreign leaders, groups, and organizations in a manner favorable to friendly national and military objectives. PSYOP supports these objectives through the calculated use of air, space, and IO with special emphasis on psychological effects-based targeting. Operationally, it provides the COMAFFOR/JFACC an effective and versatile means of exploiting the psychological vulnerabilities of hostile forces to create fear, confusion, and paralysis, thus undermining their morale and fighting spirit.

    Military Deception Military deception (MILDEC) misleads or manages the perception of adversaries, causing them to act in accordance with friendly objectives. Military deception will not intentionally target or mislead the US public, Congress, or the news media.

    Operations Security Operations security (OPSEC) is an activity that helps prevent our adversaries from gaining and exploiting critical information. OPSEC is not a collection of specific rules and instructions that can be applied to every operation, it is a methodology that can be applied to any operation or activity for the purpose of denying critical information to the adversary. Critical information consists of information and indicators that are sensitive, but unclassified. OPSEC aims to identify any unclassified activity or information that, when analyzed with other activities and information, can reveal protected and important friendly operations, information, or activities.

    Counterintelligence Counterintelligence (CI) is defined as information gathered and activities conducted to protect against espionage, other intelligence activities, sabotage, or assassinations conducted by or on behalf of foreign governments or elements thereof, foreign organizations, or foreign persons, or international terrorist activities.
    Click here for Counterintelligence on the AWC Gateway to Intelligence

    Counterpropaganda. Counterpropaganda operations are activities to identify and counter adversary propaganda and expose adversary attempts to influence friendly populations and military forces situational understanding. They involve those efforts to negate, neutralize, diminish the effects of, or gain an advantage from foreign psychological operations or propaganda efforts. Numerous organizations and capabilities (e.g., ISR activities, public affairs, or other military units and commanders) can identify adversarial propaganda operations attempting to influence friendly populations and military forces. Commanders at all levels should integrate activities designed to disseminate truthful information; mitigate adversary messages; and disrupt, degrade, and disable adversary psychological operations.

    Public Affairs Operations Commanders conduct PA operations to assess the information environment in areas such as public opinion and to recognize political, social, and cultural shifts. Public affairs operations are a key component of informational flexible deterrent options and build commanders’ predictive awareness of the international public information environment and the means to use information to take offensive and preemptive defensive actions in Air Force operations. Public affairs operations are the lead activity and the first line of defense against adversary propaganda and disinformation. Falsehoods are easily identified when the truth is well known. Public affairs operations should be coordinated and deconflicted with other activities of influence operations because communication technology can make information simultaneously available to domestic and international audiences. Public affairs operations must never be used to mislead the public, national leaders, or the media.
    Click here for PA page on the AWC Gateway to Public Affairs

Electronic Warfare Operations. The integrated planning, employment, and assessment of military capabilities to achieve desired effects across the electromagnetic domain in support of operational objectives. Also called EW Ops.

    Electronic warfare operates across the electromagnetic spectrum, including radio, visible, infrared, microwave, directed energy, and all other frequencies. It is responsible for coordination and deconfliction of all friendly uses of the spectrum (air, land, sea, and space) as well as attacking and denying enemy uses. For this reason it is a historically important coordinating element in all operations, especially as current and future friendly uses of the electromagnetic spectrum multiply. The military capabilities of electronic warfare operations are electronic attack, electronic protection, and electronic warfare support.

Network Warfare Operations. Network warfare operations are the integrated planning and employment of military capabilities to achieve desired effects across the interconnected analog and digital portion of the battlespace. Network warfare operations are conducted in the information domain through the dynamic combination of hardware, software, data, and human interaction. Also called NW Ops.

    Network warfare operations Networks in this context are defined as any collection of systems transmitting information. Examples include, but are not limited to, radio nets, satellite links,tactical digital information links (TADIL), telemetry, digital track files, telecommunications, and wireless communications networks and systems. The operational activities of network warfare operations are network attack (NetA), network defense (NetD) and network warfare support (NS).

Information Warfare

The older Joint definition of Information Warfare (below) has been removed from JP 3-13.

    Information Warfare. -- Information operations conducted during time of crisis or conflict to achieve or promote specific objectives over a specific adversary or adversaries. Also called IW.

The USAF, however, retains the idea of Information Warfare in AFDD 2-5 as:

    The theory of warfare in the information environment that guides the application of information operations to produce specific battlespace effect in support of commander's objectives. This italicized definition applies only to the Air Force and is offered for clarity.

Unrestricted Warfare, by Qiao Liang and Wang Xiangsui, Beijing: PLA Literature and Arts Publishing House, February 1999 [bold emphasis is ours]

    "In terms of beyond-limits warfare, there is no longer any distinction between what is or is not the battlefield. Spaces in nature including the ground, the seas, the air, and outer space are battlefields, but social spaces such as the military, politics, economics, culture, and the psyche are also battlefields. And the technological space linking these two great spaces is even more so the battlefield over which all antagonists spare no effort in contending. [3] Warfare can be military, or it can be quasi-military, or it can be non-military. It can use violence, or it can be nonviolent. It can be a confrontation between professional soldiers, or one between newly emerging forces consisting primarily of ordinary people or experts. These characteristics of beyond-limits war are the watershed between it and traditional warfare, as well as the starting line for new types of warfare."

U.S. Cyber Command (USCYBERCOM)Back to Top

    U.S. Cyber Command (USCYBERCOM) - [from USSTRATCOM Fact Sheet]

        Mission :
        USCYBERCOM plans, coordinates, integrates, synchronizes, and conducts activities to: direct the operations and defense of specified Department of Defense information networks and; prepare to, and when directed, conduct full-spectrum military cyberspace operations in order to enable actions in all domains, ensure US/Allied freedom of action in cyberspace and deny the same to our adversaries.

http://captology.stanford.edu/

"Mass-Media Theater," by Weimann, in State Department eJournal USA, May 2007

    "When one says "terrorism" in a democratic society, one also says "media." For terrorism by its very nature is a psychological weapon which depends upon communicating a threat to a wider society. This, in essence, is why terrorism and the media enjoy a symbiotic relationship." —Paul Wilkinson

(The 2011 budget request for State and USAID is $52.8 billion; DoD’s request is for $708.2 billion.) And in the past several years, the DoD has received authorization to spend hundreds of millions of dollars a year on what is termed–sometimes interchangeably and confusingly–strategic communications, information operations, and psychological operations.

“If you want to influence someone, you have to touch their emotions,” Col. James A. Treadwell, the element’s director, told the Washington Post

U.S. Special Operations Command (SOCOM) funding of $34.4 million. That includes money to build and run eight news and information websites (six are already constructed) targeted at various regions of the world

The basic idea behind information operations and its component psychological operations is that they involve putting information out, and those activities are overseen on the civilian side by the Congressional Armed Services Committees. Intelligence gathering involves collecting information, a function overseen in Congress by the Select Committees on Intelligence and coordinated within the U.S. intelligence apparatus. Yet numerous information operations contracts of late task the contractor with doing analysis of media, a process akin to intelligence analysis. Some of those contractors have then slid into collecting information on local politics, economics, or the population.

http://www.setimes.com/
http://www.infosurhoy.com/cocoon/saii/xhtml/en_GB/homepage/default
http://www.centralasiaonline.com/
http://www.al-shorfa.com/cocoon/meii/xhtml/en_GB/homepage/default
http://www.mawtani.com/cocoon/iii/xhtml/en_GB/homepage/default
- US DOD PsyOp sites
A US Defense Department Internet initiative is stoking a debate among experts about whether the Pentagon is overreaching.

The $10.1 million Trans Regional Web Initiative (TRWI) aims to launch a series of language-specific websites, including Russian, Chinese, Farsi, Georgian, Armenian and Azeri. The Pentagon in early September awarded the contract to build the new websites to General Dynamics Corp. The websites will feature news and analysis that helps garner support for US policies. Overall, the Defense Department wants to establish 12 websites within the year under TRWI's auspices. http://www.eurasianet.org/departments/insightb/articles/eav092809a.shtml
In common parlance and in media reporting, the terms “strategic communications,” “public
diplomacy,” “global engagement,” “information operations,” and “propaganda” are often used
interchangeably.
DOD has defined strategic communication as
“focused United States Government efforts to understand and engage key audiences to create,
strengthen, or preserve conditions favorable for the advancement of United States government
interests, policies, and objectives through the use of coordinated programs, plans, themes,
messages, and products synchronized with the actions of all instruments of national power.

U.S. Air Force and U.S. Central Command have been
developing deceptive identities on the Internet in order to infiltrate chat rooms and other social
media using a special software.38 The U.S. Air Force software contract states that it shall be used
to target adversarial sites worldwide without detection

military information support operations
(formerly psychological operations), military deception, and electronic warfare. Many of the
specific programs under the JIOWC’s purview are classified. The JIOWC also coordinates
computer network operations and network warfare with the JTF-GNO and with JFCC-NW. These
latter two organizational activities are to fall under the responsibility of the newly formed U.S.
Cyber Command (USCYBERCOM), a sub-unified command under U.S. Strategic Command
(USSTRATCOM). The commander of USCYBERCOM, General Keith Alexander, also serves as
the director of NSA. Traditionally, the NSA mission has been information assurance for national
security systems and signals intelligence, and gathering information about potential threats under
the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA). The dual-hatted nature of this appointment
places this intelligence function alongside the offensive operations command.

information operations. The integrated employment of the core capabilities of electronic
warfare, computer network operations, psychological operations, military deception, and
operations security, in concert with specified supporting and related capabilities, to influence,
disrupt, corrupt or usurp adversarial human and automated decision making while protecting
our own. Also called IO.

psychological operations. Planned operations to convey selected information and indicators to
foreign audiences to influence their emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately
the behavior of foreign governments, organizations, groups, and individuals. The purpose
of psychological operations is to induce or reinforce foreign attitudes and behavior favorable
to the originator’s objectives. Also called PSYOP

space control. Combat, combat support, and combat service support operations to ensure freedom
of action in space for the United States and its allies and, when directed, deny an adversary
freedom of action in space. The space control mission area includes: surveillance of space;
protection of US and friendly space systems; prevention of an adversary’s ability to use
space systems and services for purposes hostile to US national security interests; negationof space systems and services used for purposes hostile to US national security interests; and
directly supporting battle management, command, control, communications, and intelligence.

The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of all possible frequencies of electromagnetic radiation.[1] The "electromagnetic spectrum" of an object is the characteristic distribution of electromagnetic radiation emitted or absorbed by that particular object.

The electromagnetic spectrum extends from low frequencies used for modern radio communication to gamma radiation at the short-wavelength (high-frequency) end, thereby covering wavelengths from thousands of kilometres down to a fraction of the size of an atom. It is for this reason that the electromagnetic spectrum is highly studied for spectroscopic purposes to characterize matter.[2] The limit for long wavelength is the size of the universe itself, while it is thought that the short wavelength limit is in the vicinity of the Planck length,[3] although in principle the spectrum is infinite and continuous.

Take Note

Notes on the nature of PsyOps

Posted by: Sunfeather

Category: Military Industrial Complex


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Created: Tue 11 Apr 2017
Updated: Tue 11 Apr 2017